12/26/2010

Hipotesis Statistik

Hipotesis Statistik. Hipotesis statistik didefinisikan sebagai pernyataan matematis tentang parameter populasi yang akan diuji sejauhmana suatu data sampel mendukung kebenaran hipotesis tersebut. Hipotesis merupakan kesimpulan sementara yang masih harus diuji kebenarannya. Ada dua rumusan hipotesis, yaitu: hipotesis null (H0) dan hipotesis alternatif (H1). Tujuan pengujian hipotesis adalah “menolak H0”, jika hal ini berhasil, maka peneliti akan mengatakan “... berhasil menolak hipotesis (H0) yang mengatakan...”. Jika pengujian ini gagal, maka meneliti akan mengatakan “... gagal menolak hipotesis (H0) yang mengatakan...”

Secara umum ada tiga bentuk hipotesis:
1. Hipotesis dua pihak (two tailed)
H0 : Φ = Φ0
H1 : Φ ≠ Φ0

Contoh:
H0 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA negeri se-DIY sama dengan swasta
H1 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA negeri se-DIY berbeda dengan swasta

2. Hipotesis sepihak (kanan)
H0 : Φ ≤ Φ0
H1 : Φ > Φ0

Contoh:
H0 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA negeri se-DIY kurang dari sama dengan 8,0
H1 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA negeri se-DIY lebih dari 8,0

3. Hipotesis sepihak (kiri)
H0 : Φ ≥ Φ0
H1 : Φ < Φ0 
Contoh: 
H0 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA swasta se-DIY lebih dari sama dengan 8,0 
H1 : Rata-rata nilai UAN siswa SLTA swasta se-DIY kurang dari 8,0 Beberapa 

Catatan:
  1. Perumusan hipotesis harus didukung oleh landasan teoritis yang tepat sehingga kebenaran hipotesis dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. Contoh korelasi antara pendapatan dan pengeluaran harus ditentukan berdasarkan teori/substansi.
  2. Dianjurkan peneliti berusaha memilih hipotesis sepihak karena menunjukkan kedalaman pengetahuan peneliti terhadap permasalahan yang akan diselesaikan.
  3. Hipotesis dua pihak hanyalah dipakai jika peneliti kurang yakin tentang nilai parameter yang diharapkan.
  4. Benar atau salahnya hipotesis tidak akan pernah diketahui dengan pasti kecuali bila kita memeriksa seluruh populasi. Oleh karena itu kita mengambil sampel random dari populasi tersebut dan menggunakan informasi yang dikandung sampel itu untuk memutuskan apakah hipotesis tersebut kemungkinan besar benar atau salah. Bukti data dari sampel yang tidak konsisten dengan hipotesis membawa kita pada penolakan hipotesis tersebut, demikian juga sebaliknya. Perlu ditegaskan bahwa penerimaan suatu hipotesis statistik adalah merupakan akibat dari ketidakcukupan bukti untuk menolaknya, dan tidak berimplikasi bahwa hipotesis itu benar.
  5. Secara umum, pengujian hipotesis dibedakan 2, pengujian hipotesis komparatif dan asosiasi. Pengujian hipotesis komparasi berkaitan dengan pengujian perbedaan (difference) mean antara dua kelompok atau lebih. Pengujian hipotesis asosiasi berkaitan dengan menguji antara dua variabel.
sumber : http://materi-statistik.blogspot.com/2010/06/hipotesis.html

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